SPINA (Structure Parameter Inference Approach) is a method for calculating constant structure parameters of endocrine feedback control systems from hormone levels obtained in vivo.

SPINA Carb is SPINA's second implementation. The equations deliver biomarkers for insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta cell function. The methodology has been validated in two cohorts.


Dietrich JW, Dasgupta R, Anoop S, Jebasingh F, Kurian ME, Inbakumari M, Boehm BO, Thomas N. SPINA Carb: a simple mathematical model supporting fast in-vivo estimation of insulin sensitivity and beta cell function. Sci Rep. 2022 Oct 21;12(1):17659. doi 10.1038/s41598-022-22531-3. PMID 36271244; PMCID PMC9587026.

SPINA Thyr | SPINA Carb | SPINA Cort | SPINA Calc | Imprint

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